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Volume 8, Issue 2

The Impact of Criminal Policy on Juvenile Justice

Authors: Khatia Kukchishvili

Khatia Kukchishvili

Doctor of Public Administration, Georgian Technical University

Email: khatia_17@yahoo.com

Affiliation: Doctor of Public Administration, Georgian Technical University

Abstract: The present article discusses the impact of criminal policy on juvenile justice. The current state of repressive and liberal criminal policy and its consequences in Georgia in 2004-2021 are analyzed. Explains what repressive and liberal criminal policy means and what positive and negative impact criminal policy can have on juvenile justice. The years 2004-2021 are conventionally divided into two parts: ● 2004-2012 – When a repressive criminal policy was announced in the country, which in itself fully reflected on juvenile justice; ● 2012-2021 – When, in conflict with the law, the policy of liberal criminal justice towards juveniles was unequivocally and clearly pursued. The article discusses the Juvenile Justice Code as one of the most prominent legislative acts of liberal politics. Also, the legislation of different countries (both Continental European Law and Anglo-American Law Countries) is presented and analyzed for the purposes of this article. The article also discusses the ruling of a number of European courts. Finally, the positive and negative consequences of pursuing a repressive / liberal criminal policy on juvenile justice are analyzed, and recommendations and remarks are issued, which will make the juvenile justice process more complete.

Keywords: Juvenile, Repressive, Justice, Liberal,

Language: GE



Textbooks and Publications:

  1. Shalikashvili, M., Mikanadze, G., (2016). Juvenile Justice (Handbook), Second Edition. „Meridian“ Publishing; (In Georgian)
  2. Lursmanashvili, L., Translation, (2015). Handbook of European Law on the Rights of the Child; Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani University Publishing House; (In Georgian)
  3. Mchedlishvili-Hedrikhi, K., (2015). Notes on the Code of Juvenile Justice, Law and World, https://lawandworld.ge/PDF/articlesPDF/ (InGeorgian)
  4. Hamilton, K., (2011). Guidelines for Juvenile Justice Legislative Reform; 2011; University of Essex: Children's Legal Center; (In English)
  5. Bartels, H., (2013). Children's rights within justice and alternative (non-judicial) proceedings; (In English)
  6. Dünkel, F., (2014). “uvenile justice systems in Europe: Reform developments between justice, welfare and „new punitiveness“, Kriminologijos Studijos, Vol. 1. (In English)
  7. Children's rights: in the context of justice and alternative (non-judicial) litigation

Legislative acts:

  1. Law of Georgia: "Juvenile Justice Code", 2015;
  2. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989;
  3. German Juvenile Justice Code;
  4. The criminal law of Great Britain and Wales; 1977;
  5. Law of Georgia: Amnesty Law, 2012;
  6. Law of Georgia: Code of Detention; 2012;
  7. Law of Georgia: "Criminal Code of Georgia"; As of 01/072008;
  8. Law of Georgia: "Criminal Code of Georgia"; As of 15/06/2022;;
  9. Law of Georgia: "Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia"; As of 15/06/2022;
  10. Beijing Rules; 1985;
  11. Russian Criminal Code, 1996.

Internet sources:

  1. Unicef Press Release, [19/05/2021]. https://www.unicef.org/georgia/ka
  2. Supreme Court of Georgia, Basic Statistics of Common Courts.http://www.supremecourt.ge/statistics
  3. Georgian National Prevention Center; < http://prevention.gov.ge/page/28/geo
  4. Chief Prosecutor's Office of Georgia, (2020). Analysis of the Juvenile Diversion-Mediation Program. https://pog.gov.ge/uploads/429f65a7-ganrideba-2019-weliconverted.pdf>
  5. Public Defender of Georgia, Parliamentary Reports. https://ombudsman.ge/geo/angarishebi.

Court decisions:

  1. Aliyev v. Georgia, (2009); https://catalog.supremecourt.ge/blog/foto/117.pdf
  2. Ramishvili and Kokhreidze v. Georgia, (2009) – https://www.supremecourt.ge/files/upload-file/pdf/ramishvilikoxreidze.pdf
  3. T. v. THE UNITED KINGDOM, (1999) – https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre#{%22fulltext%22:[%22t%20v%20united%20kindom%22],%22itemid%22:[%22001-58593%22]}


  1. Law of Georgia “Criminal Code of Georgia”, Article 33. [As of 10/06/2022] https://www.matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/16426?publication=241>
  2. German Juvenile Justice Law; The second part of the first section; https://germanlawarchive.iuscomp.org/?p=756#1> [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  3. Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. https://www.imolin.org/doc/amlid/Russian_Federation_Criminal_Code.pdf
  4. Blood Law of Great Britain and Wales https://www.cps.gov.uk/crime-info/youthcrime
  5. Mchedlishvili-Hedrikhi, K., (2015). Notes on the Code of Juvenile Justice, Law andWorld, https://lawandworld.ge/PDF/articlesPDF [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  6. Convention on the Rights of the Child, (1989) Article 1. [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  7. Law of Georgia “Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia”, Article 3. https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/90034?publication=144
  8. European Court of Human Rights, T. v. THE UNITED KINGDOM, (1999), https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre#{%22fulltext%22:[%22t%20v%20united%20kingdom%22],%22itemid%22:[%22001-58593%22 [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  9. Law of Georgia “Criminal Code of Georgia”, Article 33; [As of July 1, 2008]. https://www.matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/16426?publication=241>[Lastseen: 10 June, 2022]
  10. Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe of 5 November 2008 on the European Rules for juvenile offenders subject to sanctions ormeasures, [05/11/2008] https://sites.unicef.org/tdad/councilofeuropejjrec08(1).pdf
  11. Statistics published by the Supreme Court of Georgia by years are processed; https://www.supremecourt.ge/statistics/
  12. Convention on the Rights of the Child, (1989). Article 37, point "b". https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/1399901?publication=0
  13. Beijing Rules, (1985).
  14. Based on the statistics published by the Supreme Court of Georgia.https://www.supremecourt.ge/statistics/
  15. European Court of Human Rights – "Ramishvili and Kokhreidze v. Georgia" (Case N1704 / 06, 27.01.2009); Aliyev v. Georgia (Case №522 / 04; 13.01.2009);
  16. Parliamentary Report of the Public Defender of Georgia for 2008 (second half)(467 pages);
  17. Parliamentary Report of the Public Defender of Georgia for 2008 (second half)(493 pages);
  18. Law of Georgia on Amnesty, (2012). https://www.matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/5080134?publication=0>
  19. Law of Georgia on Amnesty, (2012) Article 1. https://www.matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/5080134?publication=0> [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  20. Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia; [As of 10/07/2022]. https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/90034?publication=144> [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  21. Unicef Press Release (2021)https://www.unicef.org/georgia/ka> [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  22. Law of Georgia "Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia", Article 1681; [As of 10/07/2022]. https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/90034?publication=144>[Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  23. Chief Prosecutor's Office of Georgia. Analysis of the Juvenile Diversion-MediationProgram, (2020) P 7 https://pog.gov.ge/uploads/429f65a7-ganrideba-2019-weli-converted.pdf [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
  24. Website of the Supreme Court of Georgia, statistics: http://www.supremecourt.ge/statistics [Last seen: 10 June, 2022]
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