The Political Security Review of the human security subcategory, which focuses on human rights, provides a comprehensive overview of how protecting and promoting human rights is critical to maintaining political stability and ensuring security in societies. This subcategory recognizes that violations and abuses of human rights can lead to profound instability, social unrest, and conflict. By focusing on this aspect of human security, policymakers and scholars emphasize the need for a comprehensive approach to protect individuals' fundamental freedoms, ensure their participation in decisionmaking, hold those responsible for human rights violations accountable, and address systemic inequalities. In this way, they seek to create an environment where all people can exercise their rights without fear of retribution or discrimination. A thriving democracy and sustainable peace require not only robust political institutions, but also a commitment to upholding human rights as the basis for achieving lasting security.

Keyword: Human Rights, Political, Security, Law, Urbanization, United Nations


Urbanization is a global phenomenon that has changed the way we live, work and interact with each other. As more and more people move to cities in search of better opportunities, the concentration of power and resources in urban areas becomes increasingly apparent. This concentration of power often leads to political dynamics that can either protect or undermine human rights. Political security in this context refers to the stability and effectiveness of government systems in urban areas. It encompasses the ability of governments to protect their citizens from internal and external threats while upholding their fundamental rights and freedoms. However, with increasing urbanization, the challenges governments face in ensuring political security are becoming more complex. One of the biggest challenges is the rapid growth of informal settlements or slums in cities. These areas often lack basic infrastructure, services, and effective governance structures. The lack of adequate housing, sanitation, and access to clean water not only violates individuals’ right to a decent standard of living, but also creates an environment ripe for social unrest and political instability.

The overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in informal settlements pose a significant health risk to residents. The lack of proper waste disposal and limited access to health facilities contribute to the spread of disease and epidemics. This further exacerbates already poor living conditions and puts a strain on the overall well-being of the community. The presence of slums often leads to higher crime rates and a greater propensity for violence. The lack of effective administration and law enforcement in these areas creates an environment where criminal activity can flourish. This not only threatens the safety of residents but also inhibits economic development throughout the city. Addressing the challenges posed by informal settlements requires a comprehensive approach. This includes implementing urban planning strategies prioritizing affordable housing, improved infrastructure, and access to basic services. Empowering residents through community participation and providing education and skills training opportunities can help break the cycle of poverty and create a more inclusive and sustainable urban environment.

1.Defining Political Security in the Context of Human Security

Political security plays a critical role in ensuring the general welfare and safety of individuals and communities. It encompasses various aspects, such as the protection of human rights, the prevention of political violence, and the promotion of democratic governance[1]. A fundamental aspect of political security is respect for human rights. Governments must ensure that individuals are protected from any form of discrimination, oppression, or abuse based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or any other characteristic. By upholding human rights principles, political security creates an environment in which people can express themselves freely without fear of persecution or reprisal. Political security also includes preventing political violence and conflict that can threaten the stability and security of individuals and communities. This includes addressing terrorism, insurgency, civil unrest, and armed conflict. By effectively managing power dynamics within societies and promoting peaceful solutions to disputes, political security helps maintain stability and reduces the risk of violence. Moreover, political security is closely linked to democratic governance.[2] It underscores the importance of accountable institutions that can. To these aspects, political security also includes protecting human rights and the rule of law in a society. It ensures that individuals have equal access to justice and are treated fairly within the legal system. Political security also includes protecting civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and association, as well as international relations. It includes maintaining peaceful relations with other nations, promoting diplomacy, and resolving conflicts peacefully. This aspect of political security focuses on preventing war, promoting disarmament, and fostering cooperation among nations. Another important element of political security is preventing and dealing with political violence. Governments must work to create an environment in which citizens feel safe from threats posed by internal and external actors. This includes accountable leadership that is responsive to the needs of its citizens.

1.1. Importance of Examining Urbanization in Human Rights Perspective

Considering urbanization from a human rights perspective is paramount to understanding the multiple impacts and challenges associated with the rapid growth of cities. As cities grow at an unprecedented rate, it is critical to assess the social, economic, and environmental consequences that may potentially violate human rights. Urban areas often concentrate on poverty, inequality, and marginalized communities, limiting access to education, health care, clean water, and sanitation. By analyzing urbanization within a human rights framework, policymakers can identify systemic inequalities and work toward implementing inclusive policies that provide equal access to resources for all residents. It can also identify vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers or indigenous communities, that may be displaced or discriminated against as a result of urban development projects. Examining the human rights impacts of urbanization can guide sustainable urban planning efforts by addressing issues such as affordable housing, transportation accessibility, and environmental degradation. In this regard, recognizing the link between urbanization and human rights is an important tool for promoting equitable and inclusive cities that prioritize the well-being and dignity of all people. By recognizing the potential risks and challenges faced by vulnerable groups such as women, children, and the elderly, cities can take targeted action to ensure their safety and well-being. This can include creating safe public spaces, improving access to health care and education, and promoting social inclusion. examining urbanization from a human rights perspective is paramount to ensuring that the rapid growth and development of cities does not come at the expense of human rights. Urbanization has the potential to both promote and hinder the realization of human rights, particularly for marginalized groups such as low-income populations and displaced communities. By analyzing urbanization from a human rights perspective, policymakers and stakeholders can better understand how urban planning decisions affect issues such as access to adequate housing, clean water and sanitation, health care, education, employment opportunities, and social inclusion. This perspective also underscores the importance of addressing environmental concerns and promoting sustainable urban development practices that prioritize human well-being and dignity.

1.2. the Relationship between Political Security and Human Security

The relationship between political security and human security is complex but interdependent. Political security refers to the stability and protection of a nation-state, its territory, and its sovereignty from internal and external threats.[3] On the other hand, human security focuses on the well-being of individuals by protecting them from various forms of harm such as poverty, disease, violence, and environmental degradation. While political security has traditionally focused on the interests of the state, it is increasingly recognized that ensuring human security is critical to the overall stability and peace in a society. An unstable political environment can threaten human security by fostering social unrest or systemic inequalities. Conversely, threats to human security, such as food insecurity or the violation of fundamental rights, can politically destabilize a nation by fueling public dissent. Therefore, a balanced approach that prioritizes both political and human security is critical for sustainable development, peaceful coexistence, and resilience to new challenges in today’s interconnected world. Political and human security are closely intertwined, and neglecting one can have serious consequences for the other. For example, a lack of political stability can hinder human security efforts and make it more difficult to access basic needs and protect fundamental rights. On the other hand, people who feel secure in their basic needs and rights are more likely to actively participate in the political process, promoting a stable and inclusive society. A comprehensive approach to security should also consider environmental sustainability. Environmental degradation and climate change pose significant threats to both political and human security. Ecosystem disruptions can lead to resource scarcity, exacerbate social tensions, and potentially trigger conflict. Therefore, protecting the environment and promoting sustainable practices are essential components of ensuring long-term security for people and nations. In today’s interconnected world, addressing global challenges requires international cooperation and collaboration. No nation can achieve sustainable development and security on its own. By building partnerships and fostering dialog, countries can work together to address problems such as poverty, inequality, and terrorism. This collective effort not only enhances human security, but also strengthens political stability and promotes a more peaceful and resilient global community.

1.3. Mutual Reinforcement of Human Security and Human Rights

The mutual reinforcement of human security and human rights is a concept that highlights the interdependence and interrelatedness of these two fundamental aspects of human well-being. Human security refers to the protection of the basic needs of individuals, including their physical, economic, and social well-being, while human rights are a set of universal entitlements and freedoms that every human being possesses by virtue of being human. The relationship between human security and human rights is mutually reinforcing, as the realization of human rights contributes to human security, while the preservation of human security enables individuals to freely exercise their rights. Human rights play a crucial role in promoting human security. Recognizing and respecting human rights ensures that individuals have access to important resources such as adequate food, clean water, health care, and education. Granting individuals, the right to these basic needs has a positive effect on their physical, economic, and social well-being and ultimately leads to overall human security. The right to education, for example, provides individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to find employment, increase their earning potential, and improve their quality of life. By guaranteeing these rights, societies can create an environment that promotes human security. In situations where people are exposed to violence, conflict, poverty, or displacement, their ability to exercise their rights is severely limited. In such scenarios, addressing human security is a prerequisite for protecting human rights. Ensuring people’s physical safety and well-being, for example, allows them to exercise their rights to freedom of expression, association, and assembly without fear of persecution or harm. By addressing the root causes of insecurity, such as poverty, inequality, and discrimination, societies can create the conditions for the enjoyment of human rights. Mutually reinforcing human security and rights is critical to creating a just and equitable society. Human rights contribute to human security by guaranteeing individuals’ access to basic needs, while human security creates the necessary conditions for individuals to freely exercise their rights. By recognizing and addressing human security concerns and human rights violations, societies can create an environment that promotes and protects the well-being and dignity of all people.

2.Key Challenges and Threats to Political Security in Urban Areas

A key challenge to political security in urban areas is the presence of organized crime and militant groups. These non-state actors often undermine the rule of law by engaging in illicit activities such as drug trafficking, extortion, and terrorism. They create an atmosphere of fear and instability that makes it difficult for political institutions to function effectively. Another threat is social unrest fueled by socioeconomic inequalities, unemployment, and lack of access to basic services such as education and health care. In urban areas with high population density, these grievances can easily escalate into riots or protest movements that pose a direct challenge to political stability. Urban areas are vulnerable to cyber threats that can disrupt critical infrastructure systems such as power grids or communications networks. The reliance on technology in cities makes them tempting targets for hackers seeking to cause chaos or steal sensitive information. Therefore, policymakers must address these challenges through effective law enforcement strategies, inclusive socioeconomic policies, investments in infrastructure resilience, and cybersecurity measures to ensure political security in urban areas.

Rapid urbanization and population growth in many cities have led to growing environmental challenges impacting political security. Urban areas often face problems such as pollution, inadequate waste disposal, and limited access to clean water and sanitation. These environmental problems not only pose health risks to the population but also contribute to social unrest and political instability. Inadequate infrastructure and urban planning exacerbate these challenges, as they can lead to overcrowding, traffic congestion, and inadequate public transportation systems.

2.1. Political Instability and Governance Issues in Urbanized Zones

As cities grow and become more complex, they often face a number of political and administrative dilemmas that impede effective governance. These problems include corruption, inadequate infrastructure, social inequality, and the inability to efficiently meet the needs of citizens. Rapid urbanization leads to increased competition and limited resources, exacerbating political instability and administrative challenges. Understanding and addressing these issues is critical for governments to ensure stable and effective governance in urban areas. A major problem in urban areas is corruption, which undermines trust in government and exacerbates political instability. In many cases, urban areas attract large investments, leading to more opportunities for corruption and illegal practices. Bribery, kickbacks, and misappropriation of public funds consume resources that should be used for infrastructure development, public services, and poverty reduction. These corrupt practices reinforce social inequalities by giving certain groups disproportionate access to wealth and resources, further destabilizing the political landscape.

Inadequate infrastructure in urbanized areas poses a challenge to governance. Rapid urbanization is straining existing infrastructure systems designed for smaller populations, increasing pressure on transportation networks, housing, sanitation, and health services. Inadequate investment in infrastructure development leads to traffic congestion, pollution, and inadequate access to basic services for urban residents. These problems can lead to social unrest and political discontent as citizens perceive the government’s inability to manage the effects of urbanization.

Finally, governments in urban areas often struggle to effectively meet the demands of the public, leading to political instability. Urban areas are dynamic and diverse, encompassing different interest groups, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Dealing with these diverse interests and providing effective governance becomes increasingly difficult as urban populations grow. Failure to promptly address public demands can lead to protests, demonstrations, and other unrest that disrupt stability and governance. Political instability and governance issues in urban areas are complex phenomena that require careful attention from governments. Combating corruption, investing in infrastructure development, and effectively meeting public demands are essential components of stable and effective governance in urban areas. As urbanization continues to increase globally, it will be critical for governments to recognize and understand these challenges to ensure sustainable and equitable development in urban areas.

2.2. Inequality, Marginalization, and Human Rights Violations

Inequality, marginalization, and human rights violations are interconnected, creating a cycle of injustice and discrimination within society. These problems are deeply rooted in power imbalances, systematic discrimination, and social exclusion, leading to the violation of basic human rights. To fully understand the complexity of these problems, it is important to examine their causes, consequences, and potential solutions. In this way, we can work toward creating inclusive societies that uphold human rights for all people, regardless of race, gender, socioeconomic status, or any other characteristic. Inequality can manifest in various forms, such as economic disparities, inadequate access to education or health care, or discrimination in employment opportunities. These inequalities often result in certain groups being marginalized and denied the same opportunities and rights as others. This marginalization perpetuates a cycle of disadvantage and undermines social cohesion. It is important to recognize that inequality is harmful not only to marginalized groups, but also to society as a whole, as it hinders progress and development. Marginalization and inequality are closely linked to human rights violations, as they directly affect the ability of individuals to fully exercise their rights. Basic human rights such as the right to life, liberty and security or the right to education and health care should be universally protected. However, marginalized people often face obstacles to realizing these rights, such as limited access to justice or exclusion from political participation. This is particularly true for minority groups, indigenous peoples, and refugees, disproportionately affected by human rights violations due to intersecting forms of discrimination.

Addressing inequality, marginalization, and human rights violations requires a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach. It is critical to address the root causes of these problems, such as discriminatory policies, biased cultural norms, and the unequal distribution of resources. Governments, civil society organizations, and the international community should work together to promote inclusive policies, strengthen legal frameworks, and invest in social programs that address the specific needs of marginalized groups. Raising awareness and educating people about human rights can help combat prejudice and stereotypes and promote an equal and just society for all. Inequality, marginalization, and human rights violations are closely intertwined and perpetuate a cycle of discrimination and injustice in societies. These problems should be addressed holistically by recognizing the underlying causes and the consequences they have on individuals and society. By promoting equality, combating marginalization, and upholding human rights, we can strive to build inclusive societies in which every individual can fully exercise their rights and actively contribute to social progress.

3.Urbanization and Human Rights in Developing Countries

Urbanization is the rapid increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas as a result of social, economic, and technological changes. This phenomenon is particularly evident in developing countries, where a growing population and rapid rural exodus have led to the expansion of cities and the creation of large slums. While urbanization can bring many benefits, such as increased access to education, employment opportunities, and infrastructure, it also poses a major challenge to human rights in developing countries. One of the most important human rights issues related to urbanization in developing countries is the issue of inadequate housing and living conditions. As cities grow rapidly, the demand for housing exceeds the construction of formal housing, forcing many individuals and families to live in slums and informal settlements that lack basic amenities. In addition, urbanization can lead to greater inequalities within developing countries and exacerbate existing social and economic inequalities. As cities grow, the cost of living rises, making it increasingly difficult for the urban poor to afford basic necessities. The lack of affordable housing and employment opportunities often leads to a perpetual cycle of poverty that limits social mobility and access to economic resources. This growing gap between rich and poor violates the principles of equality and non-discrimination, which are fundamental to the protection of human rights. Despite the challenges posed by urbanization, there are also opportunities to protect and promote human rights in developing countries. Governments can adopt policies and programs that prioritize the provision of adequate housing, accessible services, and targeted assistance to marginalized populations. International organizations and civil society can also advocate for the rights of urban residents and hold governments accountable for their human rights obligations. By addressing the human rights impacts of urbanization, developing countries can strive for inclusive, sustainable cities that uphold and protect the rights of all people.

3.1. Urbanization and Political Security Dynamics in Developed Nations

Urbanization is a complex process that is profoundly shaping political security dynamics in the developed world. As cities continue to grow and concentrate population, they become centers of political power and influence. In many developed countries, political will and decision-making processes are concentrated in urban areas. This concentration of power can have positive and negative effects on political security; on the other hand, urbanization can also pose challenges to political security. The rapid growth of cities often leads to social inequalities and the formation of marginalized groups, which can be the breeding ground for political unrest and instability. Urban areas can also experience increased crime rates, political violence, and radicalization due to the presence of marginalized groups and the difficulty of monitoring and managing large populations. Moreover, urban centers can become epicenters of political polarization and social division as different political ideologies and interest groups vie for power and influence. This polarization can undermine the stability and cohesion of the nation and lead to political tensions and security threats. Urbanization has profound implications for political security dynamics in industrialized nations. While it can improve political security through focused governance and active citizen participation, it also brings challenges such as social inequalities, crime rates, and political polarization. Recognizing these dynamics and implementing appropriate strategies and policies to address them are critical to maintaining political stability and security in urbanized industrialized nations.

3.2. Governments’ Initiatives and Legal Frameworks for Ensuring Political Security

Governments around the world have recognized the importance of providing political security to maintain stability and protect the interests of their citizens. For this reason, significant initiatives and legal frameworks have been created to comprehensively address this multifaceted issue. These government efforts are aimed at preventing any threats or disruptions that could undermine democratic processes, escalate political tensions, or threaten national security. Initiatives include the introduction of sound electoral systems, transparent campaign finance regulations, and active cooperation with civil society organizations to promote citizen participation in decision-making processes. Legal frameworks provide a solid foundation for combating acts of political violence, promoting freedom of expression while balancing it with responsible restrictions on expression, enforcing anti-corruption measures to prevent undue influence in government affairs, and establishing mechanisms to regularly monitor and assess political security conditions. By combining these initiatives with effective enforcement mechanisms, governments can effectively ensure political security and strengthen public confidence in their institutions. Governments must prioritize the protection of human rights as an integral part of political security. Respecting and promoting human rights not only reinforces democratic values, but also contributes to the overall stability and well-being of a nation. This includes protecting the rights of marginalized groups, ensuring equal access to justice, and combating all forms of discrimination or violence based on race, gender, religion, or sexual orientation. By actively promoting and protecting human rights, governments can foster a society that is inclusive, just, and resilient, which ultimately enhances political security and citizen confidence. When human rights are upheld, marginalized groups are empowered and given equal opportunities to participate in social, economic, and political spheres. This inclusiveness leads to a more just society where discrimination and inequality are minimized. By ensuring that all citizens have access to basic necessities such as health care, education and housing, governments can reduce poverty and improve living conditions. This not only increases the well-being of individuals, but also strengthens the social fabric of the nation.

Respect for human rights also plays a critical role in improving political security. When citizens feel that their fundamental rights are protected by the government, they are more likely to trust government institutions and actively participate in democratic processes.

3.3 Civil Society Movements and Advocacy for Urban Human Rights

Civil society movements play an important role in advocating for human rights in cities. They ensure that people in cities have access to essential services, equal opportunities, and a good quality of life. These movements operate independently of government and represent diverse groups of individuals who come together to promote social justice and protect the rights of urban communities. Through their activism, civil society movements challenge systemic injustices, address urban inequalities, and advocate for policy changes that uphold human rights principles in cities.

A major focus of civil society movements is the provision of basic services in urban areas. Many cities around the world lack basic amenities such as clean water, sanitation, and electricity, which affects the well-being of urban residents. Movements advocating for human rights in cities are working to ensure that governments prioritize the provision of these services and hold them accountable for their responsibilities to their citizens. By drawing attention to these deficiencies and pushing for concrete action, civil society movements play an important role in asserting the fundamental rights of urban residents. Civil society movements are instrumental in addressing urban inequalities, often exacerbated by economic disparities and discrimination. These movements work to give voice to marginalized groups, such as low-income people, minorities, and immigrants, who are often discriminated against and marginalized in cities. By raising awareness of these injustices, organizing protests, and coordinating with policymakers, civil society movements can effect change and promote equitable urban development. They advocate for affordable housing, inclusive urban planning, and equal opportunity to bridge the gap between the privileged and marginalized members of society. Another important aspect of civil society movements’ advocacy for human rights in cities is their involvement in policy change. These movements conduct extensive research, analyze urban policies, and propose alternative developments that prioritize human rights principles. They work with urban decision-makers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to ensure that urban policies consider the needs and rights of all city residents. Civil society movements provide valuable technical advice and input by leveraging their understanding of the challenges facing urban communities. Their efforts support democratic decision-making processes and promote inclusive urban governance that upholds the rights of all residents.

Civil society movements are catalysts for change when it comes to advocating for human rights in cities. By fighting for the provision of basic services, addressing urban inequalities, and influencing policy change, these movements contribute significantly to the creation of inclusive, equitable, and sustainable cities. Their tireless efforts remind us that the fight for human rights in cities must continue, as the rights and well-being of urban populations are essential to a just and prosperous society.

4.The Role of International Organizations in Promoting Political Security in Urbanization

International organizations play a critical role in promoting political security in urbanization by addressing the complex challenges posed by the rapid growth of cities. As cities become increasingly important centers of economic, social, and political activity, they also become vulnerable to instability and conflict. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank play an important role in working with national governments to develop comprehensive strategies to address urbanization. They provide technical assistance, knowledge-sharing platforms, and financial support to help countries build sustainable and resilient cities. These organizations also work to ensure political stability by promoting good governance, supporting institutions that foster inclusivity and accountability, and facilitating dialog among various stakeholders at the local, national, and international levels. In this way, international organizations help create a stable urban environment that promotes social cohesion, economic development, and peace. International organizations play a critical role in addressing environmental problems in urban areas. They work with local governments and communities to implement sustainable practices, such as renewable energy initiatives, waste management systems, and green infrastructure projects. These efforts aim to mitigate the effects of climate change, reduce pollution, and improve the overall quality of life for urban resident’s international organizations support capacity-building programs to equip local authorities and citizens with the knowledge and skills they need to effectively address urban development challenges.

4.1. United Nations’ Efforts in Addressing Political Security Concerns in Urban Areas

As urbanization continues to shape the world, the United Nations recognizes that it is increasingly important to address political security in urban areas. With a focus on promoting peace, stability, and sustainable development, the UN has developed several strategies and initiatives to address these challenges head-on. As part of its peacekeeping operations, the organization deploys troops and police officers to conflict-ridden cities to ensure the safety of civilians and facilitate political dialog between conflicting parties. Through its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly Goal 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities, the UN aims to create an inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable urban environment by implementing improved governance systems, crime prevention strategies and community engagement programs. The United Nations works with local governments and organizations to address specific security challenges in urban areas by providing technical assistance and capacity-building initiatives tailored to the specific context. Overall, the United Nations plays a critical role in addressing political security issues in urban areas by promoting cooperation among nations and offering practical solutions that promote peace and stability at the national and local levels. The United Nations recognizes the importance of addressing economic security issues in urban areas. By promoting sustainable economic development and job creation, the UN aims to reduce poverty and inequality in urban areas. This includes supporting entrepreneurship, encouraging innovation, and providing access to financial resources for small businesses. By promoting economic security, the United Nations contributes to the general welfare and prosperity of urban communities.

4.2. Collaboration between NGOs and International Bodies for Urban Human Rights

In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of cooperation between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international bodies in promoting and protecting human rights in cities. NGOs play a critical role in advocating for the rights of marginalized urban populations and addressing social inequalities. However, their effectiveness can be enhanced through partnerships with international bodies such as the United Nations Human Rights Council or UN -Habitat[4]. These collaborations provide NGOs with access to resources, expertise, and political influence that are critical to advancing the urban human rights agenda at the global level. These partnerships allow for knowledge sharing and mutual learning so that NGOs can leverage best practices and innovative solutions from different regions around the world. The collaborative efforts of non-governmental and international organizations are a powerful force in ensuring that urban policies prioritize the well-being and dignity of all people living in the city, ultimately contributing to more inclusive and sustainable urban communities. Moreover, these collaborations foster a sense of solidarity among NGOs as they work toward a common goal of promoting human rights in urban areas. By pooling their resources and expertise, NGOs can increase their impact and advocate for systemic change at the local and global levels. This collective approach not only strengthens the voice of NGOs, but also increases their ability to hold governments and other stakeholders accountable for their actions, or lack thereof, in addressing human rights issues in cities. Ultimately, these partnerships serve as a catalyst for positive change that leads to a more just and equitable urban society for all.

4.3. Participation in Global Democracy

The emergence of the new global system requires the participation of all the constituent elements of that system. Although this has not yet been fully realized, it is considered the most important basis for the legitimacy of the new world order and, at the same time, can remedy the democratic deficits of the global structure after the creation of the United Nations. In this model of participation, which David Held called “global democracy”, the structure of the world system is changing in ways that can lead to ever-greater participation of non-governmental organizations in the international system. On this basis, apart from being considered elements of global democracy, non-governmental organizations have important complementary roles in relation to their other elements, an example of which is the official consultative position of non-governmental organizations in the institutions of the United Nations. The participation of non-governmental organizations in policymaking and implementation of human rights, in consultations, and fact-finding can also be seen as the first signs of the movement toward a global democracy. Traditionally, the power to shape policy and make decisions has rested with governments and international institutions. However, the inclusion of NGOs in these processes represents a shift toward a more inclusive and participatory form of governance. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in advocating for marginalized communities, promoting social justice, and holding governments accountable for their actions. By actively engaging in policy discussions, NGOs bring diverse perspectives to the table and represent the interests of various stakeholders who may not have direct access to decision-making processes. This involvement promotes transparency and pluralism and ensures that policies are not driven solely by government or corporate interests. In addition, NGOs often have specific knowledge and expertise on specific human rights issues. Your involvement in fact-finding missions helps uncover violations that may otherwise go unnoticed or unaddressed. Additionally, NGOs play a crucial role in advocating for marginalized communities and amplifying their voices. Their grass-roots connections and proximity to affected individuals enable them to gather first-hand information and testimonies, and to shed light on human rights abuses that mainstream institutions may overlook. This bottom-up approach ensures that the most vulnerable populations are not left behind, and their rights are protected.

4.4. Role and Functions of International Bodies in Promoting Political Security

Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in advocating for human rights in cities. They often work at the grassroots level, have direct contact with marginalized communities, and understand their specific needs and challenges. Non-governmental organizations can provide critical services such as shelter, health care, and education while conducting research, raising awareness, and advocating for policy change. Their proximity to affected communities enables them to address needs and bring about meaningful change on the ground. NGO involvement in defending human rights in cities is critical as it bridges the gap between marginalized communities and policymakers. Through their grassroots work, NGOs learn firsthand the challenges these communities face so they can develop targeted interventions that address their specific needs. One of the main strengths of NGOs is their ability to provide important services to marginalized urban populations. For example, they often set up shelters for homeless people and families, providing a safe place and access to basic amenities. NGOs can set up clinics or mobile medical units to provide much-needed assistance to those who do not have access to medical care. Education is another important area where NGOs have a major impact. They set up schools or education programs tailored to the needs of marginalized urban communities, ensuring that children receive a quality education despite their difficult circumstances. By empowering individuals through education, NGOs help break the cycle of poverty and inequality. In addition, NGOs play a critical role in researching human rights issues in cities. Through rigorous data collection and analysis, they gain insights and recommendations that can inform policy-making and advocacy. By shedding light on the specific challenges facing marginalized urban communities, NGOs help raise awareness and mobilize support to address these issues on a systemic level. In addition to education and research, NGOs also provide critical services and resources to marginalized urban communities. They can provide clinics for medical care, counseling services, vocational training, and access to clean water and sanitation. These initiatives not only improve the well-being and quality of life of people in these communities, but also contribute to their overall development and empowerment. NGOs also play a critical role in promoting community engagement and participation. They provide platforms for dialog and collaboration that enable community members to voice their concerns, share their experiences, and actively participate in decision-making processes. This inclusive approach helps build stronger, more resilient communities and ensures that the needs and aspirations of marginalized urban populations are addressed. Overall, NGOs are instrumental in addressing the multiple challenges faced by marginalized urban communities.


conducting a policy security review focused on urbanization in the area of human rights is paramount to promoting the well-being and protection of people living in rapidly developing cities. Moreover, it is important to recognize that urbanization not only poses challenges to human rights, but also presents opportunities for positive change. As cities continue to grow and develop, they have the potential to become centers of innovation, diversity, and inclusion. By harnessing the power of urbanization, governments can create an environment that promotes social cohesion, economic prosperity, and equal opportunity for all residents. Therefore, a comprehensive review of political security should not only focus on the negative impacts of urbanization, but also look for ways to maximize its potential to promote human rights and improve the overall well-being of urban residents. Urbanization poses numerous challenges, including social inequality, housing problems, and lack of access to basic amenities that can potentially threaten human rights. Therefore, by conducting a comprehensive assessment that addresses these issues and proposes appropriate policies, governments can ensure that urban development occurs in a manner consistent with human rights principles. This review should include an analysis of urban planning policies, infrastructure development projects, and socioeconomic inequalities within cities. It should also emphasize the importance of community engagement and participation to ensure that all voices are heard during decision-making processes. By prioritizing the review of political security in the context of urbanization in human rights, governments are demonstrating their commitment to promoting inclusive and sustainable cities where the rights of every individual are upheld.


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