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Volume 8, issue 4


Some features of the development of Georgian private law from the 90s to the present day

Authors: Mikheil Bichia

Mikheil Bichia

Doctor of Law, visiting lecturer at TSU, professor of European University

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Affiliation: Doctor of Law, visiting lecturer at TSU, professor of European University

Abstract: The presented article is dedicated to the trends of development of Georgian private law from the 90s to our days. In the scientific work are considered several essential legal reforms in the direction of both general private law and special branches of private law (labor law, corporate law). Accordingly, the article explores the grounds for legislative changes, their negative and positive sides. The purpose of the research is, first of all, to determine what are the features of common law and the law of continental Europe, then to determine which of them were reflected in the legislative changes implemented in Georgian private law, and with what specificity. Accordingly, the article analyzes the tendencies of private law development in Georgia with regard to legal reforms. The research confirms that most of the legislative changes served as a departure from Soviet rules, which was considered as a difficult task. At the same time, the reforms were aimed at bringing them closer to European standards and improving national legislation, although it became clear that the implementation of separate changes was based on the influence of American law too.

Keywords: Private Law, Development, Legislative Changes, European Law,


Language: GE

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Bibliography:

    Normative material and explanatory cards:

  1. Association agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member states, on the one hand, and Georgia, 27 June 2014 (In English)
  2. Explanatory card “On making changes to the CCG”, 2020 On July 14 Law No. 6814. (In Georgian)
  3. Law of Georgia of July 15, 2020 N6989; Explanatory card “On making changes to the CCG” (registration No. 07-2/447/9, initiated option, explanatory card) (In Georgian)
  4. Civil Code, legislative amendment, 2019 Law of September 20 N5013-I. (In Georgian)
  5. Explanatory card on the Law N4956 of September 18, 2019 “On Changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  6. Organic Law “Labor Code of Georgia”, Article 12, Clause 3-4, 17/12/2010, No. 4113-rs. (In Georgian)
  7. Explanatory card “On Amendments to the Civil Code” Law No. 3315 of July 21, 2018. (In Georgian)
  8. Explanatory card on Law No. 4649 of December 15, 2015 “On Changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  9. “On Adoption and Foster Care” Law, 2017 May 14, N746-II. (In Georgian)
  10. Explanatory card “On Amendments to the Civil Code”, Law of March 20, 2015, N3339. (In Georgian)
  11. Explanatory card “On the change in the Civil Code”, December 25, 2013, Law N1864. (In Georgian)
  12. Draft Law “On Entrepreneurs” (Registration No. 07-3/29/10, initiated option, explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  13. Explanatory card “On changes in the Civil Code”, Law N2978-I of April 27, 2010. (In Georgian)
  14. Explanatory card “On Amendments to the Civil Code”, Law N1964 of November 3, 2009. (In Georgian)
  15. Explanatory card on the Law N5919 of March 14, 2008 “On making additions to the CCG”. (In Georgian)
  16. Explanatory card on the Law N5278 of July 11, 2007 “On Changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  17. On amendments to the Civil Code of Georgia, No. 07-2/248/6, 10.07.2006, explanatory card. (In Georgian)
  18. The Law of December 18, 2007 on Amendments to the Civil Code of Georgia, No. 5624. (In Georgian)
  19. “On Investment Funds” Law (Registration No. 07-2/453/9, initiated option, explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  20. Explanatory card on the Law N3879-II of December 8, 2006 “On changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  21. Explanatory card on the Law No. 3967 of December 14, 2006 “On Changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  22. SSC, legislative amendment of December 8, 2006, N3879-II. (In Georgian)
  23. “On Public Registry” Law, 2008 December 19, N820-II. (In Georgian)
  24. Explanatory card on the Law N4310 dated December 29, 2006 “On changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian) 25. Explanatory card “On making changes to the CCG” (No. 07-2/343/7, initiated option, explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  25. Court decisions:

  26. Decision N3k/461-01 of June 20, 2001 of the Civil, Entrepreneurial and Bankruptcy Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia. (In Georgian)
  27. Decision No. 132-475-07 of the Civil, Entrepreneurial and Bankruptcy Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia dated June 26, 2007. (In Georgian)
  28. Decision No. As-1237-2021 of the Civil Affairs Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia dated February 24, 2022. (In Georgian)
  29. Decision No. As-785-2021 of the Civil Affairs Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia dated November 12, 2021. (In Georgian)
  30. Scientific literature:

  31. Bichia, M., (2022). Several Legal Peculiarities of the Regulation of Business Environment in Germany, Journal “Law and World”, Vol. 8, Issue 1, p. 56. (In English)
  32. Brouwer R., (2018). On the Meaning of ‘System’ in the Common and Civil Law Traditions: Two Approaches to Legal Unity, 34(1), Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, p. 53. (In English)
  33. Chanturia, L., (2010). Die Europäisierung des georgeschen Rechts – bloßer Wunsch oder große Herausdorff? In Rabels Zeitschrift, Band 74, Heft 1, S. 154-181. (In German)
  34. Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 28 June 1999 concerning the framework agreement on fixedterm work concluded by ETUC, UNICE and CEEP, Official Journal L 175, 10/7/1999. (In English)
  35. Dainow, J. (1966). The Civil Law and the Common Law: Some Points of Comparison, The American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 15 (3), pp. 424- 425. (In English)
  36. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Handbook on European data protection, Belgium, 2014, pp. 118-119. (In English)
  37. Kennedy, D. (2002). The Politics and Methods of Comparative Law, The Common Core of European Private Law, Essays on the Project, Mattei U., Bussani M. (eds.), Hague, p. 143. (In English)
  38. Hopt K. J., Reuter D. (2001). Stiftungsrecht in Europa: Eine Einführung, Stifrungsrecht und Stiftungsrechtsreform in Deutschland, den Member States der Europȁischen Union, der Schweiz, Liechtenstein und den USA, Heymanns, S. 2-4. (In German)
  39. Kötz, H. (1993). Europȁische Juristenausbildung, Zeitschrift für Europȁisches Privatrecht, 1, S. 268 ff. (In German)
  40. Perner St., Spitzer, M., Kodek, G. (2014). Bürgerliches Recht, Lernen, Ȕben, Wissen, 4. Auflage, Wien, S. 4. (In German)
  41. Rüthers B., Stadler, A. (2009). Allgeimener Teil des BGB, 16.Auflage, Beck, München, Rn.2 ff. (In German)
  42. Zimmermann, R. (2006). Die Europäisierung des Privatrechts und die Rechtsvergleichung, Schriftenreihe der Juristischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, Heft 179, Berlin, 2006, S. 19, 47. (In German)
  43. BVerfGE 123, 267 ff. (In German)
  44. Kniper, Р., (2005), Law and history, translation from German Z. M. Nogaibai, Publishing Association “Nomos”, Baden-Baden/Almaty, 205. (in Russian).
  45. Batlidze, G., (2015), Liability caused by a guilty act in tort law, IV, Journal of “Georgian Business Law Review”, pp. 24-25. (In Georgian)
  46. Bakakuri, N., Gelteri, M., Tsertsvadze G., Jugheli, G. (2019). Corporate Law, Tbilisi, p. 19, 73. (In Georgian)
  47. Bichia, M., (2020). Legal Obligational Relations, 3-nd ed., Tbilisi, pp. 515-517. (In Georgian)
  48. Bichia, M., (2020). Structural Analysis of Article 181 of Civil Code of Georgia, “Justice and Law”, N1, pp. 65-66. (In Georgian)
  49. Bichia, M., (2018). Legal Obligational Relations (Handbook), 2-nd ed., Tbilisi, pp. 345-346, 351- 352. (In Georgian)
  50. Bichia, M., (2017). The Georgian Model of Compensation of Non-property damage for Violating Personal Rights in Line with European standards, “Journal of Law”, №1, pp. 23-25. (In Georgian)
  51. Bichia, M., (2012). Protection of personal life according to civil law of Georgia, Tbilisi, pp. 180- 181, 330. (In Georgian)
  52. Burduli, I., Makharoblishvili, G. and others, (2021). Handbook of corporate law, Tbilisi, pp. 46-47. (In Georgian)
  53. Burduli, I., (2012). Modern Georgian corporate law (brief review), in the book: Roman Shengelia’s Jubilee Collection: Problems of Law, Tbilisi, p. 227. (In Georgian)
  54. Kereselidze D., (2007). Influence of European Codifications and International Instruments of Unification of Legislation on the Development of Georgian Private Law, Georgian Law Review, Special Edition, p. 8. (In Georgian)
  55. Kintsurashvili, T., Ramishvili, L., Kotetishvili, I., (2005). Freedom of Expression, Volume 2, Tbilisi, p. 20. (In Georgian)
  56. Kalichava, K., (2017). Europeanization of Georgian administrative law in terms of European integration - past experience and future perspectives, “Journal of Law”, N2, 289. (In Georgian)
  57. Khubua, G. (2004). Theory of Law, Tbilisi, p. 132. (In Georgian)
  58. Jorbenadze, S. (1994). The main problems of the future civil code of the Republic of Georgia, law reform in Georgia, Tbilisi, p. 139. (In Georgian)
  59. Chanturia, L. (2017). Commentary on the Civil Code, Article 55, B. I, Tbilisi, pp. 324-325. (In Georgian)
  60. Chanturia, L. (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 14-15. (In Georgian)
  61. Chanturia, L., Ninidze, T. (2002). Commentary on the Law “On Entrepreneurs”, 3rd edition, Tbilisi, p. 3. (In Georgian)
  62. Ninidze, T. (2013). The structure of the first article of the Civil Code, in the collection of articles dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Akaki Labartkava (ed. Chanturia L.), Tbilisi, pp. 167-169. (In Georgian)
  63. Zarandia, T. (2016). Fundamentals of property law, Tbilisi, pp. 207-217. (In Georgian)
  64. Zarandia, T. (2018). Neighborhood law and the content of civil tolerance obligation in Georgian law, “Journal of Law”, N2, p. 6, 17. (In Georgian)
  65. Zoidze, B. (2016) Evolution of the right to property in Georgian law, a collection of reports of the international conference of November 5-6, 2015: “”Property and legal stability: transformation of the concept of property”, Tbilisi, p. 107. (In Georgian)
  66. Zoidze, B. (2005). Reception of European private law in Georgia, Tbilisi, pp. 15, 18, 182, 276. (In Georgian)
  67. Totladze, L. (2018). Commentary on the Civil Code, Article 172, B. 2, Tbilisi, p. 80. (In Georgian)
  68. Shotadze, T. (2011). Mortgage as a means of securing bank credit, doctoral dissertation, Tbilisi, pp. 178-179. (In Georgian)
  69. Svanadze, G. (2014). Freedom of contract, in the book: “Contract Law”, ed. Jugel G., Tbilisi, pp. 102-105. (In Georgian)
  70. Chanturia, L. (2011). General part of civil law, chapter, Tbilisi, pp. 6, 20-21, 30-31, 33-38, 43. (In Georgian)
  71. Shengelia, R., Shengelia, E. (2011). Family Law: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Tbilisi, pp. 395- 397. (In Georgian)
  72. Shvelidze, Z. (2018), Chapter one, In: “Georgian labor law and international labor standards, ed. Bakakuri N., Tordia T., Shvelidze Z., Tbilisi, 2018, pp. 22-23. (In Georgian)
  73. Kardava, E. (2018). Reform of the Georgian labor law in terms of the requirements of the European integration and association agreement, doctoral dissertation, Tbilisi, p. 103, 106. (In Georgian)

Notes:

  1. Kennedy, D., (2002). The Politics and Methods of Comparative Law, The Common Core of European Private Law, Essays on the Project, Mattei U., Bussani M. (eds.), Hague, p. 143. (In English)
  2. in detail see Chanturia, L., (2010). Die Europäisierung des georgischen Rechts – bloßer Wunsch oder große Herausforderung? In Rabels Zeitschrift, Band 74, Heft 1, S. 154-181. (In German)
  3. Zimmermann, R., (2006). Die Europäisierung des Privatrechts und die Rechtsvergleichung, Schriftenreihe der Juristischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, Heft 179, Berlin, S. 47. (In German)
  4. Kötz, H., (1993). Europȁische Juristenausbildung, Zeitschrift für Europȁisches Privatrecht, 1, 1993, 268 ff. (In German)
  5. Zimmermann, R., (2006). Die Europäisierung des Privatrechts und die Rechtsvergleichung, Schriftenreihe der Juristischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, Heft 179, Berlin, S. 19. (In German)
  6. Khubua, G. (2004). Theory of Law, Tbilisi, p. 132. (In Georgian)
  7. Dainow, J., (1966). The Civil Law and the Common Law: Some Points of Comparison, The American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 15 (3), p. 424-425. (In English)
  8. Brouwer, R., (2018). On the Meaning of ‘System’ in the Common and Civil Law Traditions: Two Approaches to Legal Unity, Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, 34(1), p. 53. (In English)
  9. BVerfGE 123, 267 ff.; Kalichava, K., (2017). Europeanization of Georgian administrative law in terms of European integration - past experience and future perspectives, “Journal of Law”, N2, 289. (In Georgian)
  10. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 20-21. (In Georgian)
  11. Zoidze, B., (2005). Reception of European private law in Georgia, Tbilisi, p. 15-18. (In Georgian)
  12. Jorbenadze, S., (1994). The main problems of the future civil code of the Republic of Georgia, law reform in Georgia, Tbilisi, p. 139. (In Georgian)
  13. Chanturia, L., (2000). Introduction to the general part of civil law of Georgia, Tbilisi, pp. 33-34. (In Georgian)
  14. Perner, St., Spitzer, M., Kodek, G., (2014). Bürgerliches Recht, Lernen, Ȕben, Wissen, 4. Auflage, Wien, 4. (In German)
  15. Rüthers, B., Stadler, A., (2009). Allgeimener Teil des BGB, 16.Auflage, Beck, München, Rn.2 ff. (in German); Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 14-15. (In German)
  16. Decision N3k/461-01 of June 20, 2001 of the Civil, Entrepreneurial and Bankruptcy Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia. (In Georgian)
  17. Decision No. 132-475-07 of the Civil, Entrepreneurial and Bankruptcy Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia dated June 26, 2007. (In Georgian)
  18. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, p. 43. (In Georgian)
  19. Civil Code of Georgia, Legislative Amendment, Law of March 20, 2015, N3339. (In Georgian)
  20. Bichia, M., (2018). Legal Obligational Relations (Handbook), 2nd ed., Tbilisi, p. 351-352. (In Georgian)
  21. Ninidze, T., (2013). The structure of the first article of the Civil Code, in the collection of articles dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Akaki Labartkava (ed. Chanturia L.), Tbilisi, pp. 167-169. (In Georgian)
  22. see Bichia, M., (2017). The Georgian Model of Compensation of Non-property Damage for Violating Personal Rights in Line with European standards, “Journal of Law”, №1, pp. 23-
  23. Bichia, M., (2012). Protection of Personal Life according to Georgian Civil Law, Tbilisi, p. 330. (In Georgian) 23. Kintsurashvili, T., Ramishvili, L., Kotetishvili, I., (2005). Freedom of Expression, Volume 2, Tbilisi, p. 20. (In Georgian)
  24. see Bichia, M., (2012). Protection of Personal Life, Accordance with the Civil Law of Georgia, Tbilisi, pp. 180-181. (In Georgian)
  25. On the Law N5919 of March 14, 2008 “On Amendments to the Civil Code” (explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  26. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Handbook on European data protection, Belgium, 2014, 118-119; Bichia, M., (2020). Structural Analysis of Article 181 of Civil Code of Georgia, “Justice and Law”, N1, pp. 65-66. (In Georgian)
  27. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 30-31. (In Georgian)
  28. Ibid., 36.
  29. Explanatory card “On Amendments to the Civil Code”, Law No. 3967 of December 14, 2006 (In Georgian)
  30. Hopt, K. J., Reuter, D., (2001). Stiftungsrecht in Europa: Eine Einführung, Stifrungsrecht und Stiftungsrechtsreform in Deutschland, den Geschäfts der Europȁischen Union, der Schweiz, Liechtenstein und den USA, Heymanns, S. 2-4. (In German)
  31. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, p. 37. (In Georgian)
  32. Amendments to the Civil Code of Georgia, Law N1964 of November 3, 2009. (In Georgian)
  33. Law “On Investment Funds” (registration No. 07-2/453/9, initiated option, explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  34. Explanatory card “On making changes to the CCG” 2020 On July 14 Law No. 6814. (In Georgian)
  35. Chanturia, L., (2017). Commentary on the Civil Code, Article 55, Book I, Tbilisi, pp. 324-325. (In Georgian)
  36. Explanatory card on Law No. 4956 of September 18, 2019 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  37. Kniper, R., (2005). Law and History, translated from German Z. M. Nogaybay, BadenBaden/Almaty, p. 105 (in Russian); Zoidze, B., (2016). Evolution of the right to property in Georgian law, a collection of reports of the international conference of November 5-6, 2015: “Property and legal stability: transformation of the concept of property”, Tbilisi, p. 107. (In Georgian)
  38. see Zoidze, B., (2016). Evolution of the right to property in Georgian law, a collection of reports of the international conference of November 5-6, 2015: “Property and legal stability: transformation of the concept of property”, Tbilisi, pp. 107-120; Zarandia, T., (2016). Fundamentals of commercial law, Tbilisi, pp. 207-217. (In Georgian)
  39. Zarandia, T., (2018). Neighborhood law and the content of civil tolerance obligation in Georgian law, “Journal of Law”, N2, p. 6, 17. (In Georgian)
  40. Totladze, L., (2018). Commentary on the Civil Code, Article 172, Book 2, Tbilisi, p. 80. (In Georgian)
  41. Civil Code, legislative amendment, 2019 Law of September 20 N5013-I. (In Georgian)
  42. Explanatory card on the Law No. 5013-I of February 13, 2019 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  43. Explanatory card on the Law No. 3879-II of December 8, 2006 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  44. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, p. 38. (In Georgian)
  45. Explanatory card on the Law N5278 of July 11, 2007 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  46. Law N2978-I of April 27, 2010 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  47. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 34-35. (In Georgian)
  48. Explanatory card on the Law N4310 of December 29, 2006 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  49. Law “On Public Registry”, 2008 December 19, N820-II. (In Georgian)
  50. On “Amendment to the Civil Code”, December 25, 2013, N1864; Shotadze, T., (2011). Mortgage as a means of securing bank credit, doctoral dissertation, Tbilisi, 2011, pp. 178-179. (In Georgian)
  51. Zoidze, B., (2005). Reception of European private law in Georgia, Tbilisi, p. 276. (In Georgian)
  52. Svanadze, G., (2014). Freedom of contract, in: “Contract Law”, ed. Jugel G., Tbilisi, pp. 102- 105. (In Georgian)
  53. Law N3879-II of December 8, 2006 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  54. Explanatory card on the Law No. 5119 of October 13, 2011 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  55. Explanatory card on the Law No. 3315 of July 21, 2018 “On Changes in the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  56. Compare Batlidze, G. (2015), Liability caused by a guilty act in tort law, IV, Journal of “Georgian Business Law Review”, pp. 24-25. (In Georgian)
  57. See Bichia, M., (2020). Legal Obligational Relations, 3-nd ed., Tbilisi, pp., 515-517. (In Georgian)
  58. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, pp. 33-34. (In Georgian)
  59. Zoidze, B., (2005). Reception of European private law in Georgia, Tbilisi, pp. 183-184. (In Georgian)
  60. Zoidze, B., (2005). Reception of European private law in Georgia, Tbilisi, p. 182. (In Georgian)
  61. Chanturia, L., (2011). General part of civil law, Tbilisi, p. 6. (In Georgian)
  62. Explanatory card on the Law No. 4649 of December 15, 2015 “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  63. see Bichia, M., (2018). Legal Obligational Relations, 2-nd ed., Tbilisi, pp. 345-346. (In Georgian)
  64. Shengelia, R., Shengelia, E., (2011). Family law: theory and practice, 2nd ed., Tb., pp. 395- 397. (In Georgian)
  65. Law “On Adoption and Foster Care”, 2017 May 14, N746-II. (In Georgian)
  66. Law of Georgia of December 18, 2007, No. 5624, “On Amendments to the Civil Code”. (In Georgian)
  67. Law of Georgia of July 15, 2020 N6989; “On making changes to the CCG” (registration No. 07-2/447/9, initiated option, explanatory card) (In Georgian)
  68. Shvelidze Z., chapter one, In: “Georgian labor law and international labor standards, ed. Bakakuri N., Tordia T., Shvelidze Z., Tbilisi, 2018, p. 22. (In Georgian)
  69. Shvelidze Z., chapter one, book: “Georgian labor law and international labor standards, ed. Bakakuri N., Tordia T., Shvelidze Z., Tbilisi, 2018, pp. 22-23. (In Georgian)
  70. Organic Law “Labor Code of Georgia”, Art. 12, Paragraphs 3-4, 17/12/2010, No. 4113-RS. (In Georgian)
  71. Decision No. As-1237-2021 of the Civil Affairs Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia of February 24, 2022; Decision No. As-785-2021 of the Civil Affairs Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia dated November 12, 2021. (In Georgian)
  72. Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 28 June 1999 concerning the framework agreement on fixed-term work concluded by ETUC, UNICE and CEEP, Official Journal L 175, 10/7/1999.
  73. Kardava, E., (2018). Reform of the Georgian labor law in terms of the requirements of the European integration and association agreement, doctoral dissertation, Tbilisi, p. 103, 106. (In Georgian)
  74. Chanturia, L., Ninidze, T., (2002), Commentary on the Law “On Entrepreneurs”, 3rd edition, Tbilisi, p. 3. (In Georgian)
  75. Bakakuri, N., Gelteri, M., Tsertsvadze, L., Jugheli, G., (2019). Corporate Law, Tbilisi, p. 19. (in Georgian); About corporate system of management in Germany See Bichia, M., (2022). Several Legal Peculiarities of the Regulation of Business Environment in Germany, Journal “Law and World”, Vol. 8, Issue 1, p. 56. (In English)
  76. Bakakuri, N., Gelteri, M., Tsertsvadze, L., Jugheli, G., (2019). Corporate Law, Tbilisi, p. 73. (In Georgian)
  77. Burduli, I., Makharoblishvili, G. and others, (2021). Handbook of corporate law, Tbilisi, pp. 46-47. (In Georgian)
  78. “On entrepreneurs” draft law (Registration No. 07-3/29/10, initiated option, explanatory card). (In Georgian)
  79. Burduli, I., (2012). Modern Georgian corporate law (brief review), in the book: Roman Shengelia’s Jubilee Collection: Problems of Law, Tbilisi, p. 227. (In Georgian)
  80. Kereselidze, D., (2007). Influence of European Codifications and International Instruments of Unification of Legislation on the Development of Georgian Private Law, Georgian Law Review, Special Edition, p. 8. (In Georgian)
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